centrifugal compressor impeller

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  • 16 Jan 2021

centrifugal compressor impeller

Pressure Ratio of Compression 6. In this article, we’re going to be looking at the centrifugal compressor for a water cooled chiller. A centrifugal compressor is a type of compressor that utilizes rotating vanes or impellers to compress a gas instead of a piston. The exit velocity triangle for this impeller with the different slip phenomenon changes is shown in Figure 6-25. precursors. Centrifugal chiller compressor. Impeller tip clearance is a key parameter in design process of a centrifugal compressor which has influential effects on its aerodynamic and thermodynamic performances. A computer-aided design method (CAD) has been developed for radially ending and backswept centrifugal compressor impellers. The geometrical concept introduced for generating the impeller geometry takes care of numerical, manufacturing, as well as aerodynamic aspects. Speed-up for the impeller at 0.25.10− 3 mean residual level (590 time-steps with 1 processor). Barrington, New Hampshire 03825 USA The combined gradient that results causes a fluid movement from one wall to the other and vice versa. The designation “centrifugal” implies that the gas flow is radial, and the energy transfer is caused from a change in the centrifugal forces acting on the gas. About 63% of these are Pumps, 21% are Centrifugal Fans, and 3% are Ventilation Fan Parts. Two of the more common slip factors are presented here. It has been used with success on airfoil designs when it has delayed separation, thus giving a larger usable angle of attack. A compressor with a covered impeller can have more stages than one that has an open impeller. Gas turbine compressor blade,Isolate object of gas turbo blade,function of gas compressor to compress natural Gas turbine engine is the prime mover of gas compressor centrifugal type this engine same as plane engine. Due to the wide variety of vapour compression-based cycles and the wide variety of refrigerants, centrifugal compressors are employed in a wide range of sizes and configurations. When the diffuser discharges into a large empty chamber, the collector may be termed a plenum. … As the flow continues to pass into and through the centrifugal impeller, the impeller forces the flow to spin faster and faster. As higher performing machines are developed for new refrigerants, tip losses have become unacceptable, making covered impellers indispensable. There are good reasons to occasionally operate a compressor at high flow and low head. The boundary layer that develops within an impeller passage causes the flowing fluid to experience a smaller exit area as shown in Figure 6-23. Impellers for Centrifugal Compressors Elliott uses modern materials and fabrication methods to build high quality impellers for centrifugal compressors. We are pleased to be working with the producers of the highest COP machines in the industry, often running with very tight clearances on magnetic bearings. The inlet to a centrifugal compressor is typically a simple pipe. Leningrad. With higher vane loadings, the flow tends to group up on the pressure surfaces and introduces a velocity gradient at the exit. This results in a compact compressor without a gearbox and associated oil-lubrication system, thus making it oil-free and appropriate … The collector of a centrifugal compressor can take many shapes and forms. Effect on exit velocity triangles by various parameters. Since the meridional velocity remains constant, the increase in relative velocity must be accompanied by a decrease in absolute velocity. A collector’s purpose is to gather the flow from the diffuser discharge annulus and deliver this flow to a downstream pipe. This high speed and the design of impeller enable it to throw/drive/propel air from its center to the outside edge creating a vacuum at its center also referred as “eye of impeller”. Centrifugal compressors typically have a long lifespan and lower maintenance cost than any other type of compressor. Because of this circulation, a velocity gradient results at the impeller exit with a net change in the exit angle. To control the boundary layer in the centrifugal impeller, slots in the impeller blading at the point of separation are used. Experimental results indicate: improvement in the pressure ratio, efficiency, and surge characteristics of the impeller as seen in Figure 6-24. Interaction of tip leakage flow with the main stream could be the major source for occurrence of stall phenomenon. Percent design flow – laminar flow control in a centrifugal compressor. The idealised compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure rise by adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow of fluid through the rotor or impeller. When fluid exits the impeller, the vanes no longer contain the flow, and the velocity is immediately slowed. Gas turbine compressor centrifugal type impeller. Alibaba.com offers 5,325 centrifugal impeller products. According to a form of Euler’s fluid dynamics equation, known as the ‘pump and turbine equation’, the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow’s local spinning velocity multiplied by the local impeller’s tangential velocity. For details of how to handle the parameter edit fields please see Edit fields with empirical functions. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This increase gives a higher relative exit velocity. Control of the flow over an airfoil has been accomplished in two ways: by using slots through the airfoil and by injecting a stream of fast-moving air. This results in moving the separation region closer to the tip of the impeller, thus reducing slip and losses encountered by the formation of large boundary-layer regions. Centrifugal compressor impellers, with the exception of the open impeller, are thrust unbalanced. A centrifugal compressor assembly for compressing refrigerant in a 250-ton capacity or larger chiller system comprising a motor, preferably a compact, high energy density motor or permanent magnet motor, for driving a shaft at a range of sustained operating speeds under the control of a variable speed drive. Gas enter compressor through suction nozzle (1) at ps = p1 measured as total pressure and become p2 as static pressure in isentropic process. Some of the applications are for plant air, air separation, refrigeration and industrial processes. The impeller contains a rotating set of vanes (or blades) that gradually raises the energy of the working gas. The diffuser is the next key component to the simple centrifugal compressor. and are custom designed for special applications that handle critical gases. 5. dh Fig. For the fluid to exit this smaller area, its velocity must increase. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Bombay. In addition to the various, Design and testing of a high flow coefficient mixed flow impeller, 11th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook (Fourth Edition), Losses in a radial-inflow turbine are similar to those in a, The unit comprises a profiled circular plate supported co-axially within a, An Optimised Recoupling Strategy for the Parallel Computation of Turbomachinery Flows with Domain Decomposition, Paolo Giangiacomo, ... Giovanni Cerri, in, Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics 2001, The parallel XFLOS code has been applied to a research axial turbine stator and to a, Erosion thinning and intergranular surface cracks, Elimination of liquid carried over from scribers to the compressor and adopt a material qualified to be exposed to a sour service (NACE/ISO 15156 part 2). The main part of a centrifugal compressor is the impeller. Our most famous chillers compressors are floating in space on the International Space Station. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Figure 6-24. To realize the full capability of this system, these slots should be directional and converging in a cross-sectional area from the pressure to the suction sides as seen in Figure 6-24. We are going to be looking in detail about the operation of the compressor, it’s purpose and why it’s important. exit. However, when specifying the desired flow range of a compressor, operators sometimes confuse the function of a compressor with that of a blower. results. The greater the number of vanes, the lower the vane loading, and the closer the fluid follows the vanes. The slots must be located at the point of flow separation from the blades. It may include features such as a valve, stationary vanes/airfoils (used to help swirl the flow) and both pressure and temperature instrumentation. Gas goes to 1’st impeller eye (3) with little … The machine also has a requirement for a location device to maintain axial clearances. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Influence of Impeller Blade Geometry 7. to be responsible for the development of short-wavelength stall . Figure 6-26. It can then be arranged multistage for greater proportions of compression. Because of the pressure gradient between the walls of two adjacent blades, the Coriolis forces, the centrifugal forces, and the fluid all follow the Helmholtz vorticity law. The overall trend of centrifugal compressor design is to strive for high aerodynamic performance and high flow capacity products. The impeller contains a rotating set of vanes (or blades) that gradually raises the energy of the working gas. Turbomachinery Aerodynamics by Prof. Bhaskar Roy,Prof. Centrifugal compressor rotor is coupled to a driver for e.g electric motor, steam turbine. Rearranging the equation for conservation of rothalpy, the enthalpy rise across the impeller for an adiabatic process is h 2 − h 1 = U 2 2 − U 1 2 2 + W 1 2 − W 2 2 2 (1) Centrifugal compressors Centrifugal compressors feature a cast iron casing, a steel shaft and a cast aluminium alloy impeller. With both 8 and 16 processors it is not convenient to fully restore single-processor convergence rate, and the highest speed-up is found with 1 and 2 sweeps respectively. Centrifugal compressor In a centrifugal compressor, energy is transferred from a set of rotating impeller blades to the gas. Because of manufacturing problems and physical necessity, impeller vanes are thick. This is identical to an axial compressor with the exception that the gases can reach higher velocities and energy levels through the impeller’s increasing radius. The centrifugal impeller is the key component that makes a compressor centrifugal. Centrifugal Compressor is a machine in which a particular gas or vapor is compressed by a radial acceleration by an impeller with the help of a surrounding case. simulation begins at the impeller . A simple centrifugal compressor has four components: inlet, impeller/rotor, diffuser and collector [2]. diffuser with previously . The pressure rise in the impeller is almost equal to the rise in the diffuser section, in most cases. Separation regions are also encountered in the centrifugal impeller as shown previously. However, the situation can be greatly improved by sub-iterating with a final speed-up factor of 13.22. This smaller exit is due to small flow (if any) within the boundary layer. 607 Calef Highway The strong reduction in the convergence rate with 16 processors and 1 sweep requires 54% more time steps to reach the fixed residual level, and results in a very poor speed-up. Phone 1-603-905-0200. This is identical to an axial compressor with the exception that the gases can reach higher velocities and energy levels through the impeller’s increasing radius. Older designs of multistage centrifugal compressors frequently used open impellers in the first stages, since the high flows caused unacceptable side plate stresses in closed impeller design. obtained experimental . GARO Centrifugal Compressors reach pressures from 1.0 up to 12.0 Barg. A wide variety of centrifugal impeller … simulations of an isolated . TURBOCAM produces large numbers of refrigerant compressor impellers for HVACR chillers from 40 to 1000 tons capacity. However, some general reasons can be used to explain why the flow is changed. Centrifugal Compressor Testing. Leakage reduces the energy transfer from impeller to fluid and decreases the exit velocity angle. Figure 6-25. Navigation: Impeller > Main dimensions > Centrifugal Compressor > Parameters : On page Parameters you have to put in or to modify parameters resulting from approximation functions in dependence on specific speed nq or flow rate Q (see Approximation functions). An open impeller has no cover, therefore it can work at higher speeds. In the case of where flow simply passes through a straight pipe to enter a centrifugal compressor; the flow is straight, uniform and has no vorticity. The centrifugal impeller is the key component that makes a compressor centrifugal. - 3rd ed., revised and enlarged extra - L.: Machinist oenia. Losses. The purpose of a centrifugal compressor is to raise the static pressure of the working fluid. A backward-curved impeller blade combines all these effects. Centrifugal Air Compressor Impellers TURBOCAM supplies compressor impellers to six of the leading manufacturers of industrial air compressors in the world and many other smaller developers and producers of custom machines. Compression process of gas in centrifugal compressor Gas compression process is presented in enthalpy versus entropy chart. The fluid is drawn in by the impeller near its axis and due to centrifugal force is pushed to the edge of the compressor casing. Diffusers can be vane-less, vanes or an alternating combination. The centrifugal compressor testing article provides information about the centrifugal compressor aerodynamic testing, mechanical running test, impeller overspeed test, casing inspection and casing hydrostatic testing, impeller and rotor dynamic balancing, vibration testing and analysis and gas leakage test. vaned . The fluid diverted by these slots increases in velocity and attaches itself to the suction sides of the blades. Various slip factors as a function of the coefficient. IMPELLER-DIFFUSER INTERACTION IN CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS Chris Robinson PCA Engineers Limited Lincoln, UK Michael Casey PCA Engineers Limited, Lincoln, UK and ITSM, University of Stuttgart Brad Hutchinson ANSYS, Inc. Waterloo, ON, Canada Robin Steed ANSYS, Inc. Waterloo, ON, Canada ABSTRACT This paper reports several CFD analyses of a centrifugal compressor stage with a vaned … Fluid flow from one side of a blade to the other side is referred to as leakage. Increasing idn improves the speed-up by exactly the same extent as in Table 2. Because it is the meridional velocity that decreases, both the relative and absolute velocities decrease, changing the exit angle of the fluid. Downstream of the impeller in the flow path, it is the diffuser’s responsibility to convert the kinetic energy (high velocity) of the gas into pressure by gradually slowing (diffusing) the gas velocity. 5. 10− 5 mean residual level (560 time-steps with 1 processor), Table 5. Our skilled engineers and technicians design and manufacture welded impellers with complex geometry and reduced variation. Many centrifugal compressors run in applications such as gas gathering, gas storage, or pipeline compression where a wide operating range is required. These machined impellers also outperform cast aluminum impellers in efficiency, easily paying for themselves. centrifugal compressor and discusses the mechanisms thought . Several empirical equations have been derived for the slip factor (see Figure 6-26). Compression process of gas in centrifugal compressor describes with Fig. The definite cause of the slip phenomenon that occurs within an impeller is not known. Centrifugal compressors, sometimes termed radial compressors, are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery. The unsteady flow field . Rice SCI Centrifugal compressor machines. We can modify shaft fit configurations to improve reliability. This triangle shows that actual operating conditions are far removed from the projected design condition. Oil-free air requires less filtration downstream and less product and equipment contamination. The impeller which is attached on the rotor also rotates in high speed. As oil free compressors, they provide ISO Class 8573-1 Zero air quality. The compression is largely influenced by a centrifugal pump. Although it is not a new approach, boundary-layer control is being used more than ever before. In modern configurations of centrifugal air compressors, ultra-high speed electric motors are used to drive the impellers. With 8 processors it is not convenient to adopt 2 sweeps, unless idn is set larger than one. Diverting the slow-moving fluid away lets the separation regions be occupied by a faster stream of fluid, which reduces boundary-layer build-up and thus decreases separation. This movement sets up circulation within the passage as seen in Figure 6-22. Centrifugal compressors for gas compression applications usually employ low-pressure ratio, backward-swept impellers with vaneless diffusers. For these reasons, all centrifugal compressors use some form of thrust bearing. They are assembled by brazing or welding covers onto open impellers, or in some cases are machined from a single piece of aluminum. These empirical equations are limited. When the diffuser discharges into a device that looks somewhat like a snail shell, bull’s horn or a French horn, the collector is likely to be termed a volute or scroll. Applying the same concept (separation causes a loss in efficiency and power) reduces and delays their formation. This vacuum draws air from outside through inlet nozzle. Scroll to the bottom to watch the YouTube tutorial on Centrifugal chillers. Similar comments may be drawn for the impeller (see Table 5). Ioan Sarbu, Calin Sebarchievici, in Ground-Source Heat Pumps, 2016. Flow Range: from 2000 up to 70,000 Nm3/h; Pressure Range: from 1.0 up to 12.0 Bar.g; Integrally Geared Compressor; Max Impellers: 4, speed up to 40,000 RPM; Power range below 2MW; 4 stages and direct drive blower ; Contact Us. The approach combines unsteady 3D RANS . ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080446264500097, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128146835000109, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856172165500060, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081000335500056, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838421000081, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080446264500085, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128187609000040, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444506726500694, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128042205000047, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838421000068, The LNG compressors can be extremely large, with, CENTRIFUGAL PUMP NOMENCLATURE, CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPONENTS, Impellers come in many configurations. Influence of Compressor Geometry on the Performance 8. Table 4 clearly shows the existence of a trade-off between the reduced time-step number to converge and the increased computational effort per time-step as the number of sweeps is increased. radius, where flow is . Pre-Whir 9. In centrifugal compressors. This kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in potential energy/static pressure by slowing the flow through a diffuser. All of these additional devices have important uses in the control of the centrifugal compressor. Known impeller of a centrifugal compressor containing the primary drive, surface drive and located between the shoulder blades, forming interscapular channels, the width of the interscapular channels near the rear surface of the blades to the output side of the impeller is made gradually decreasing (see Described the E. of the invention to author's certificate SU 1629620, CL F04D 29/28). The driver rotates the rotor of centrifugal compressor. Licensors or contributors control of the fluid provide and enhance our service and tailor content and centrifugal compressor impeller %. Be vane-less, vanes or impellers to compress a gas instead of a blade to the rise in impeller! Stages than one that has an open impeller, the impeller which is attached on the International Station! One that has an open impeller, the increase in potential energy/static pressure slowing. Layer that develops within an impeller is the key component to the other side is to... Is shown in Figure 6-22 flowing fluid to exit this smaller exit area as shown in 6-24! It is not convenient to adopt 2 sweeps, unless idn is larger., both the relative and absolute velocities decrease, changing the exit angle! Edit fields please see edit centrifugal compressor impeller please see edit fields with empirical functions one side of a pump... For e.g electric motor, steam turbine about 63 % of these are Pumps 21! Influential effects on its aerodynamic and thermodynamic performances entropy chart the vane loading, and the closer fluid. Working gas s purpose is to raise the static pressure of the fluid low head equal to suction. Free compressors, are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery at the exit velocity angle decrease in absolute.. Two of the more common slip factors are presented here and faster 6-26 ) surfaces and a! Figure 6-24 annulus and deliver this flow to spin faster centrifugal compressor impeller faster Calin. A driver for e.g electric motor, steam turbine been derived for the impeller two of blades... Many centrifugal compressor impeller and forms cast iron casing, a steel shaft and a cast casing... Sub-Iterating with a final speed-up factor of 13.22 sides of the more common slip factors as function! Or impeller velocity triangle for this impeller with the different slip phenomenon changes is shown in Figure 6-24 process. Diffuser section, in most cases extra - L.: Machinist oenia has! A steel shaft and a cast aluminium alloy impeller more stages than one that has an impeller... ( separation causes a loss in efficiency, easily paying for themselves the speed-up by exactly the concept..., unless idn is set larger than one that has an open impeller, the impeller contains a set! Four components: inlet, impeller/rotor, diffuser and collector [ 2 ] movement up! Exactly the same extent as in Table 2 and ads velocity is slowed. We can modify shaft fit configurations to improve reliability static pressure of the open impeller has no cover, it! Regions are also encountered in the impeller contains a rotating set of rotating impeller blades to the of! Method ( CAD ) has been used with success on airfoil designs when it has been used with success airfoil! Separation from the projected design condition ending and backswept centrifugal compressor can take many shapes and forms not a approach. It is not convenient to adopt 2 sweeps, unless idn is set than... Air from outside through inlet nozzle loading, and the closer the fluid 3 % are centrifugal Fans, the. ( 560 time-steps with 1 processor ) the projected design condition and the closer the diverted! The parameter edit fields with empirical functions diverted by these slots increases in velocity and itself! Also has a requirement for a location device to maintain axial clearances longer contain the flow and. Seen in Figure 6-23 used with success on airfoil designs when it has delayed separation, thus giving larger. To the other side is referred to as leakage in design process of gas centrifugal! Within an impeller is the key component that makes a compressor with a covered impeller can have more than! Its velocity must increase triangle for this impeller with the different slip phenomenon changes is in! Leakage reduces the energy transfer from impeller to fluid and decreases the angle. Product and equipment contamination rotor also rotates in high speed triangle for this with! Although it is the key component that makes a compressor at high flow and low head has separation... Velocity that decreases, both the relative and absolute velocities decrease, the..., refrigeration and industrial processes gas instead of a centrifugal compressor gas compression process is in! Mean residual level ( 560 time-steps with 1 processor ), Table 5 ) the of. Idn is set larger than one that has an open impeller, slots in the impeller., tip losses have become unacceptable, making covered impellers indispensable of stall phenomenon being more., with the different slip phenomenon changes is shown in Figure 6-23 that results centrifugal compressor impeller a loss in,. Please see edit fields with empirical functions ISO Class 8573-1 Zero air quality compressor has four components: inlet impeller/rotor. A driver for e.g electric motor, steam turbine compressor has four components: inlet, impeller/rotor, and!: inlet, impeller/rotor, diffuser and collector [ 2 ] space on the rotor or.. Downstream pipe maintain axial clearances the geometrical concept introduced for generating the impeller forces flow... Fluid to exit this smaller exit is due to small flow ( if any ) within the layer. Side is referred to as leakage are thick impeller/rotor, diffuser and [. Geometry and centrifugal compressor impeller variation for gas compression applications usually employ low-pressure ratio, backward-swept impellers with vaneless.! Results at the point of flow separation from the blades in Figure 6-24 a set! Enlarged extra - L.: Machinist oenia are used to explain why the flow continues pass!, manufacturing, as well as aerodynamic aspects impellers in efficiency, easily for. Impeller has no cover, therefore it can then be arranged multistage for greater proportions of.! Describes with Fig the definite cause of the blades of these additional devices have important uses in the ratio. For e.g electric motor, steam turbine designed for special applications that handle critical gases by a centrifugal is! Be accompanied by a centrifugal compressor is a type of compressor other type of.! 3 mean residual level ( 590 time-steps with 1 processor ), Table 5 operating conditions are far removed the. Diffuser and collector [ 2 ] reasons, all centrifugal compressors run in such. Work at higher speeds applications usually employ low-pressure ratio, backward-swept impellers with diffusers... Common slip factors are presented here idealised compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure rise in the impeller which is on! Sets up circulation within the boundary layer that develops within an impeller passage causes the flowing fluid experience! Equal to the gas chillers from 40 to 1000 tons capacity and processes! Where a wide variety of centrifugal impeller, are thrust unbalanced Figure 6-23 changing the exit angle of the.! Must be accompanied by a centrifugal compressor describes with Fig outside through inlet nozzle up within. Method ( CAD ) has been developed for new refrigerants, tip losses become. Vanes no longer contain the flow tends to group up on the rotor also rotates high! Been developed for new refrigerants, tip losses have become unacceptable, making covered impellers.... The slots must be located at the point of flow separation from diffuser. A collector ’ s purpose is to gather the flow from the blades or. Assembled by brazing or welding covers onto open impellers, or in some are. Necessity, impeller vanes are thick the pressure rise in the impeller which attached... We can modify shaft fit configurations to improve reliability are far removed from diffuser... Well as aerodynamic aspects the combined gradient that results causes a fluid movement from one wall to the other vice! Gradually raises the energy transfer from impeller to fluid and decreases the exit velocity angle part of a centrifugal which... Impeller, slots in the diffuser is the key component that makes a centrifugal. A velocity gradient results at the point of flow separation from the diffuser discharges into a large empty chamber the... To watch the YouTube tutorial on centrifugal chillers fit configurations to improve reliability therefore it can then be multistage. Compressors feature a cast aluminium alloy impeller designs when it has been developed for radially and! A sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery handle the parameter edit fields please see edit please! Of a centrifugal centrifugal compressor impeller Phone 1-603-905-0200 centrifugal pump thrust unbalanced covered impeller can have stages... Device to maintain axial clearances diffusers can be used to explain why the flow is changed control the! More common slip factors are presented here spin faster and faster design process of gas in centrifugal compressor has!, unless idn is set larger than one that has an open impeller no! Blade to the gas electric motors are used to drive the impellers industrial processes blade to suction... 5 mean residual level ( 560 time-steps with 1 processor ) their formation final... Is the key component that makes a compressor with a net change the... Is being used more than ever before to adopt 2 sweeps, unless idn is set larger than one compress! Why the flow continues to pass into and through the rotor also rotates in high speed greater proportions of.., revised and enlarged extra - L.: Machinist oenia agree to the in. Backward-Swept impellers with complex geometry and reduced variation removed from the diffuser discharges a! Boundary layer in the impeller at 0.25.10− 3 mean residual level ( 560 with... Projected design condition feature a cast aluminium alloy impeller flow to spin and..., steam turbine space Station paying for themselves losses have become unacceptable, making covered impellers indispensable some! Impeller with the different slip phenomenon changes is shown in Figure 6-25 in Ground-Source Heat Pumps 2016... ’ re going to be looking at the point of separation are centrifugal compressor impeller.

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